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FAQ: Where Medicaid's Reach Has Expanded — And Where It Hasn't

This is one of several explainers to help consumers navigate their health insurance choices under the Affordable Care Act, or as some call it, Obamacare. Click here for answers to other common questions. Have a question we missed? Send it to We may use it in a future on-air or online segment.

Could I be eligible for Medicaid now?

The Affordable Care Act greatly expanded the number of people who qualify for Medicaid, the state-run health insurance program for people with low incomes. Previously, it was difficult for anyone other than pregnant women, parents and children to qualify. The law expands eligibility in ways that will allow many more people, including single and childless men or women, to qualify.

How do I know if I'm eligible for Medicaid?

The law extends eligibility to all adults under the age of 65 whose modified adjusted gross incomes fall below just under $16,000 for individuals and $32,500 for a family of four.

In states that decided not to participate in the Medicaid expansion, the rules are different and vary from state to state. About half of the states opted out of the Medicaid expansion, which is something that the U.S. Supreme Court gave them permission to do. In those states, the income cutoff to be eligible for Medicaid is generally much lower than what was set in the Affordable Care Act, so fewer people will qualify. And if you're a childless adult, you're most likely not eligible in states that rejected the Medicaid expansion.

To find out the income cutoff in your state, check out the tables here.

Or, just try signing up for coverage at your health insurance exchange. The exchange will calculate if you are eligible for Medicaid in your state, and if you are, direct you to the proper state agency to get signed up. ( Click here for our FAQ on how to navigate the exchanges).

How do I know if my state has expanded Medicaid?

The following states have said yes to the Medicaid expansion:

Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, D.C., Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia

The following states have said no to the Medicaid expansion or not yet decided:

Alabama, Alaska, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

This list is current as of Sept. 30, 2013. Check here for updates.

What if my state didn't expand Medicaid?

If your income is too high to qualify for Medicaid under your state's rules, you can still try enrolling at an insurance exchange. You may not qualify for subsidies, though. The subsidies are for people whose income falls between 100 percent of the federal poverty level ($11,490 for an individual) and 400 percent ($45,960).

If you make too much to qualify for Medicaid but too little to qualify for subsidies on the exchange, then you are exempted from the new mandate to carry health insurance. ( See our FAQ on the individual mandate here.)

If that's your situation — you're poor and still have no health insurance — you can still seek health care with other safety net providers, such as federal community health centers and free clinics run by local nonprofits.

If I am sick and unable to work and have no income, can I get a plan on an exchange for free?

If you are disabled and have no income, you most likely won't be shopping for insurance on the exchanges. Rather, you may qualify for Medicaid. In most states, if you qualify to collect Supplemental Security Income, or SSI, you also qualify for Medicaid. For more information on Medicaid eligibility and links to your state's Medicaid office, click here.

See other Frequently Asked Questions on the Affordable Care Act:

  • Understanding The Health Insurance Mandate And Penalties For Going Uninsured
  • All About Health Insurance Exchanges And How To Shop At Them
  • A Young Adult's Guide To New Health Insurance Choices
  • What Retirees And Seniors Need To Know About The Affordable Care Act
  • How Obamacare Affects Employers and How They're Responding
  • Additional coverage from NPR Member Stations:

  • California (KQED, San Francisco)
  • California (KPCC)
  • California (KXJZ Capital Public Radio, Sacramento)
  • (Colorado Public Radio)
  • Massachusetts (WBUR, Boston)
  • Minnesota (Minnesota Public Radio)
  • Georgia (WABE, Atlanta)
  • New York (WNYC)
  • Oregon (Oregon Public Broadcasting)
  • Pennsylvania (WHYY
  • Texas (KUHF)
  • Texas (KUT, San Antonio)
  • This FAQ was produced through a collaboration between NPR and , an editorially independent program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health-care policy research organization. The Kaiser Family Foundation is not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

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